Hochschule Kempten      
Fakultšt Elektrotechnik      
Microelectronics       Fachgebiet Elektronik, Prof. Vollrath      

Microelectronics

Microelectronics deals with design, manufacturing and test of integrated transistor circuits.
At the beginning emphasis was on integrating as many transistors as possible in a small area achieving high operating speeds (timing closure).
Nowadays in 10 nm technologies manufacturing costs and mask costs are very high and millions of transistors are available. Focus has changed to identify applications where millions of chips are needed (mobile phones) and to be able to build and verify robust circuits with millions of transistors in a short time frame.
Microelectronics maintained a steady 30% productivity gain every 2 years over the last 30 years. Semiconductor manufacturing is using roadmaps, data collection and analysis (Big Data), simulation, automation in software and hardware (Industry 4.0) and dedicated test strategies (Design for test) and verification to be successfull.

Strategies in microelectronics:
This class presents typical software tools for circuit development and manufacturing processes. A typical chip development example is done in the laboratory.

Lecture

17.03.2021, 22.3.2021, 24.3.2021

1. Introduction:

Microelectronics, background, course content,
companies, references
Electrical simulation (LTSPICE): LTSPICE
Design and layout: Electric VLSI design system

Reading:
Video Introduction 17.03.2021
31.03.2021

2. Microelectronics History

Transistor evolution, history, Moore's law,
MOSFET transistor to chip

Reading:
Video LTSPICE and Electric 25.03.2020


14.04.2021

3. MOSFET

Technologies and Systems
MOSFET: IV curves, static equation, layout and cross section

Laboratoy 1/2: Design and simulation of 1 μm and 50 nm CMOS transistors

Reading:
Video MOSFET 31.03.2020
21.04.2021

4. MOSFET Inverter:

MOSFET as capacitor, MOSFET switch model(R, C),
Inverter, IV curve, propagation delay, Standard cell, pass gate (PG), transmission gate (TG)

Laboratoy 1/2: Design and simulation of 1μm and 50 nm CMOS transistors

Reading:
Video Inverter 01.04.2020
28.04.2021

5. IC Manufacturing:

Wafer, chips
Yield, fabrication process, top view, cross section

Laboratoy 1/2: Design and simulation of 1μm and 50 nm CMOS transistors

Reading:
Video Process 07.04.2020
5.05.2021

6. Design rules and alignment

Schematic, layout and stick diagram

Laboratoy 1/2: Design and simulation of 1μm and 50 nm CMOS transistors



Reading:
Video Design Rules 08.04.2020
12.05.2021

7. RLC in microelectronics

NAND gate: parasitic resistance and capacitance, RCX extraction From logic gate layout to chip layout,
AOI (AND, OR, INVERT) design style,

Reading:
Video RLC and CMOS Logic 14.04.2020

15.04.2020
Laboratory 3/4: A CMOS inverter

Video Laboratory 3/4: A CMOS inverter 15.04.2020
19.05.2021

8. Silicon Compiler: From VHDL to layout

Unit Transistor,
Cell layout,
System synthesis,
VHDL entity and architecture
Synthesis and silicon compiler
VHDL hardware definition language
Entity, architecture, ports, busses, signals, hierarchy, state machine, test

22.04.2020 Video Laboratory 3/4: A CMOS inverter

Reading:
Video Systems, Synthesis, VHDL 21.04.2020

2.06.2021

9. FPGA, VHDL and delay

ASIC, FPGA
Delay and pipeline operation

Laboratory 3/4: A CMOS inverter

Reading:
Video Synthesis, FPGA, Delay and power 28.04.2020

9.06.2021

10. Microelectronics system design

Area estimation, microprocessors
D-Flip-Flop, state machine and scan FF
Chip design: man power and time estimate
Package, man power and time

6.05.2020 Laboratory: Synthesis of a serial gray code to binary converter

Reading:
Video Area, D-Flip-Flop, state machine 29.04.2020

Video test and scan cell 5.5.2020

Video laboratory delay and synthesis 6.5.2020

16.06.2021

11. Memories

SRAM, DRAM, Flash
Example:Samsung 21nm, 48LV, 3 Bit per cell, 256Gb NAND Flash

13.05.2020 Laboratory: Optimization of a standard cell in sclib.jelib

Reading:
Video Area, D-Flip-Flop, state machine 12.05.2020

Video Laboratoray 13.05.2020

23.06.2021

12. Power

Package,
Input outputs,
Clock


20.05.2020 Laboratory: Progress and Questions

Reading:
Video Power, vdd, clock and input outputs 19.05.2020

Notes about laboratory 20.05.2020
30.06.2021

13. Design for test

Defects
Challenges of microelectronics
Review

27.05.2020 Laboratory: Progress and Questions

Reading:
Video Design for test, faults, test 26.05.2020

1.07.2021

14. Review

Example exam

Laboratory: Design of a FPGA

Reading:
CMOS basic analog circuits:
differential amplifier, SC circuits, sample and hold, performance measurement

Videos 2020

Videos of Lectures 2020

Questions

Questions

Laboratory 2021: Build a 4 bit positive number multiplier


Laboratory 2020: Build a 16 bit shift register converting gray code to binary code

Laboratory 5: Build a 16 bit shift register converting gray code to binary
  • Inputs
    • C3, C3b initiate a new serial parallel conversion
    • C1, C1b, C2, C2b control a shift by one position of the input
    • MSB comes first, LSB comes in last.
  • Gray code to binary
    • An EXOR operating with the previous bit converts gray to binary
  • Outputs
    • D0 to D15 are the final values of the parallel output

Open Laboratory 6: Optimize and simulate a library cell


SGrayBinary.vhdl
FDC.jelib
Laboratory Feedback

Problems:

Problems

Tools and Files

  1. Electric: http://www.staticfreesoft.com/index.html
  2. CMOS Circuit Design and Layout: http://www.cmosedu.com/
  3. LTSPICE: http://www.linear.com/designtools/software/
  4. VLSI Design System Free Libraries http://www.staticfreesoft.com/productsLibraries.html

Past and Future Laboratories



References:

[1] CMOS: Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation, Revised Second Edition, R. Jacob Baker, Wiley, ISBN 978-0-470-22941-5, Revised 2nd Edition, 2008.
      www.CMOSedu.com
[2] CMOS VLSI Design, Neil Weste, David Harris ca. 100.-
      www.cmosvlsi.com
      http://pages.hmc.edu/harris/class/e158
[3] Application Specific Integrated Circuits, Michael Smith 62.-Euro
      http://www10.edacafe.com/book/ASIC/ASICs.php
[4] Microelectronic Circuit Design, R. C. Jaeger, T. N. Blalock, McGraw Hill, 4th Edition, 60.- Euro
      http://www.jaegerblalock.com/
[5] CMOS Analog Circuit Design, Phil Allen and Doug Holberg, 2015: 71/28 Euro
      http://www.aicdesign.org/scnotes10.html