Hochschule Kempten      
Fakultšt Elektrotechnik      
Microelectronics       Fachgebiet Elektronik, Prof. Vollrath      

Microelectronics

Microelectronics deals with design, manufacturing and test of integrated transistor circuits.
At the beginning emphasis was on integrating as many transistors as possible in a small area achieving high operating speeds (timing closure).
Nowadays in 10 nm technologies manufacturing costs and mask costs are very high and millions of transistors are available. Focus has changed to identify applications where millions of chips are needed (mobile phones) and to be able to build and verify robust circuits with millions of transistors in a short time frame.
Microelectronics maintained a steady 30% productivity gain every 2 years over the last 30 years. Semiconductor manufacturing is using roadmaps, data collection and analysis (Big Data), simulation, automation in software and hardware (Industry 4.0) and dedicated test strategies (Design for test) and verification to be successfull.

Strategies in microelectronics:
This class presents typical software tools for circuit development and manufacturing processes. A typical chip development example is done in the laboratory.

Lecture

17.03.2021, 22.3.2021, 24.3.2021

1. Introduction:

Microelectronics, background, course content,
companies, references
Electrical simulation (LTSPICE): LTSPICE
Design and layout: Electric VLSI design system

Reading:
Video Introduction 17.03.2021
Video Laboratory start 22.03.2021
31.03.2021

2. Microelectronics History

Transistor evolution, history, Moore's law,
MOSFET transistor to chip

Reading:
Video Moore, Hierarchy, Inverter 24.03.2021



14.04.2021

3. MOSFET

Technologies and Systems
MOSFET: IV curves, static equation, layout and cross section

Laboratoy 1/2: Design and simulation of 1 μm and 50 nm CMOS transistors

Reading:
Video MOSFET 31.03.2021
14.04.2021

4. MOSFET Inverter:

MOSFET as capacitor, MOSFET switch model(R, C),
Inverter, IV curve, propagation delay, Standard cell, pass gate (PG), transmission gate (TG)

Laboratoy 1/2: Design and simulation of 1μm and 50 nm CMOS transistors

Reading:
Video Inverter 14.04.2021
19.04.2021

5. IC Manufacturing:

Wafer, chips
Yield, fabrication process, top view, cross section

Laboratoy 3/4: A CMOS inverter

Reading:
Video Process 19.04.2021
28.04.2021

6. Design rules and alignment

Schematic, layout and stick diagram

Laboratoy 3/4: A CMOS inverter



Reading:
Video Design Rules 28.04.2021
5.05.2021

7. RLC in microelectronics

NAND gate: parasitic resistance and capacitance, RCX extraction From logic gate layout to chip layout,
AOI (AND, OR, INVERT) design style,

Reading:
Video RLC and CMOS Logic 5.05.2021

10.05.2021
Laboratory 3/4: A CMOS inverter

Video Silicon Compiler 10.05.2021
12.05.2021

8. Silicon Compiler: From VHDL to layout

Unit Transistor,
Cell layout,
System synthesis,
VHDL entity and architecture
Synthesis and silicon compiler
VHDL hardware definition language
Entity, architecture, ports, busses, signals, hierarchy, state machine, test

12.05.2021 Video Truth table design style, VHDL

Reading:
17.05.2021 Video Laboratory Multiplier

2.06.2021

9. FPGA, VHDL and delay

ASIC, FPGA
Delay and pipeline operation

Laboratory 3/4: A CMOS inverter

Reading:
Video Delay and power 2.06.2021
Video Laboratory Multiplier 31.05.2021

9.06.2021

10. Microelectronics system design

D-Flip-Flop, state machine and scan FF

Reading:
D-Flip-Flop, state machine 9.06.2021

Video Laboratory Multiplier 7.06.2021



16.06.2021

11. Memories

SRAM, DRAM, Flash
Example:Samsung 21nm, 48LV, 3 Bit per cell, 256Gb NAND Flash

Reading:
Video Memories 16.6.2021

Video Laboratoray 14.06.2021

23.06.2021

12. Power

Package,
Input outputs,
Clock


Reading:
Video Power, vdd, clock and input outputs 19.05.2020

Notes about laboratory 20.05.2020
30.06.2021

13. Design for test

Defects
Challenges of microelectronics
Review

27.05.2020 Laboratory: Progress and Questions

Reading:
Video Design for test, faults, test 26.05.2020

7.07.2021

14. Review

Example exam

Laboratory: Design of a FPGA

Reading:
CMOS basic analog circuits:
differential amplifier, SC circuits, sample and hold, performance measurement

Videos 2020

Videos of Lectures 2020

Questions

Questions

Laboratory 2021: Build a 4 bit positive number multiplier


Laboratory 2020: Build a 16 bit shift register converting gray code to binary code

Laboratory 5: Build a 16 bit shift register converting gray code to binary
  • Inputs
    • C3, C3b initiate a new serial parallel conversion
    • C1, C1b, C2, C2b control a shift by one position of the input
    • MSB comes first, LSB comes in last.
  • Gray code to binary
    • An EXOR operating with the previous bit converts gray to binary
  • Outputs
    • D0 to D15 are the final values of the parallel output

Open Laboratory 6: Optimize and simulate a library cell


SGrayBinary.vhdl
FDC.jelib
Laboratory Feedback

Problems:

Problems

Tools and Files

  1. Electric: http://www.staticfreesoft.com/index.html
  2. CMOS Circuit Design and Layout: http://www.cmosedu.com/
  3. LTSPICE: http://www.linear.com/designtools/software/
  4. VLSI Design System Free Libraries http://www.staticfreesoft.com/productsLibraries.html

Past and Future Laboratories



References:

[1] CMOS: Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation, Revised Second Edition, R. Jacob Baker, Wiley, ISBN 978-0-470-22941-5, Revised 2nd Edition, 2008.
      www.CMOSedu.com
[2] CMOS VLSI Design, Neil Weste, David Harris ca. 100.-
      www.cmosvlsi.com
      http://pages.hmc.edu/harris/class/e158
[3] Application Specific Integrated Circuits, Michael Smith 62.-Euro
      http://www10.edacafe.com/book/ASIC/ASICs.php
[4] Microelectronic Circuit Design, R. C. Jaeger, T. N. Blalock, McGraw Hill, 4th Edition, 60.- Euro
      http://www.jaegerblalock.com/
[5] CMOS Analog Circuit Design, Phil Allen and Doug Holberg, 2015: 71/28 Euro
      http://www.aicdesign.org/scnotes10.html